for the learning of mathematics

an international journal of mathematics education

Founding editor

David Wheeler


David A Reid,

Kristiansand, Norway

Associate Editors

Jean-François Maheux,

Montréal, QC, Canada

Sue Staats,

Minneapolis, MN, USA

Managing editor

Susan Oesterle,

New Westminster, BC, Canada

Advisory Board

Janet Ainley,

Leicester, UK

Mariolina Bartolini Bussi,

Modena, Italy

Richard Barwell,

Ottawa, ON, Canada

Laurinda Brown,

Bristol, UK

France Caron,

Montréal, QC, Canada

Daniel Chazan,

College Park, MD, USA

Alf Coles,

Bristol, UK

Brent Davis,

Calgary, AB, Canada

Nadia Douek,

Nice, France

Mellony Graven,

Grahamstown, South Africa

Amy Hackenberg,

Bloomington, IN, USA

Dave Hewitt,

Loughborough, UK

Einat Heyd-Metzuyanim,

Haifa, Israel

Lesley Lee,

Montréal, QC, Canada

Stephen Lerman,

London, UK

Takeshi Miyakawa,

Tokyo, Japan

David Pimm,

Vancouver, BC, Canada

Arthur B. Powell,

Newark, NJ, USA

Luis Radford,

Sudbury, ON, Canada

Ulrika Ryan,

Malmö, Sweden

Anna Sfard,

Haifa, Israel

Elaine Simmt,

Edmonton, AB, Canada

Nathalie Sinclair,

Burnaby, BC, Canada

Ole Skovsmose,

Aalborg, Denmark

Paola Valero,

Stockholm, Sweden

Marja van den Heuvel-Panhuizen,

Utrecht, The Netherlands

Ayşe Yolcu,

Ankara, Turkey

Rina Zazkis,

Burnaby, BC, Canada

FLM Board of Directors

Cynthia Nicol, Chair

Vancouver, BC, Canada

Alayne Armstrong,

Port Moody, BC, Canada

Olive Chapman,

Calgary, AB, Canada

Viktor Freiman,

Moncton, NB, Canada

Jennifer Holm,

Kitchener, ON, Canada

Lisa Lunney Borden,

South River Road, NS, Canada

Jo Towers,

Calgary, AB, Canada

The journal aims to stimulate reflection on mathematics education at all levels, and promote study of its practices and its theories: to generate productive discussion; to encourage enquiry and research; to promote criticism and evaluation of ideas and procedures current in the field. It is intended for the mathematics educator who is aware that the learning and teaching of mathematics are complex enterprises about which much remains to be revealed and understood.

All articles that appear in FLM have been fully peer-reviewed. The journal includes articles in English and in French. It is published three times a year, in March, July and November, by the FLM Publishing Association: Susan Oesterle, Managing Editor, Faculty of Science & Technology, Douglas College, PO Box 2503, New Westminster, BC, Canada V3L 5B2, published under the auspices of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group/Groupe Canadien d'étude en didactique des mathématiques (CMESG/GCEDM), The journal's website is

ISSN: 0228-0671